Each Natural Wax, as well as the olive oil control, was saponified individually (100%) and the reaction products were evaluated. In some cases, Natural Waxes did not make a commercially acceptable soap at 100% usage, as the bars were composed of a high level of unsaponifiables. To continue the experiment, each Natural Wax was blended with olive oil at 50% ratios, saponified, and the reaction products were evaluated and compared to 100% olive oil (control). We will refer to these blends as “saponified blends” for the remainder of this paper, and each one was evaluated within the following categories:
Quantitative Evaluation: Effect on Bar Rigidity.
Penetration values were measured on a Koehler K19500 penetrometer. The penetration of 100% saponified olive oil was recorded at 57 dmm (needle, 50g). The saponified blends measuring below 57 dmm proved to harden the bar, increasing bar rigidity, while the saponified blends measuring above 57 dmm proved to soften the bar, decreasing bar rigidity.
Tactile Evaluation: Effect on Bar Cleansing Properties and Lather
In a sensory panel performed internally (N=20); individuals were given specific hand washing instructions and asked to evaluate both the lather on the hands and the cleansing properties of each saponified blend against the olive oil control. Panelists rated each saponified blend as “increases,” “decreases,” or “no change.”
Sensory Evaluation: Effect on Bar Color and Odor
The same sensory panel was asked to describe the finished bar colors and odor. These subjective observations were determined by comparing each saponified blend to the olive oil control.
Practical Evaluations: Trace Level, Recommended Use Level, Recommended Applications
Trace Level was determined by a skilled soap maker based on how fast/slow each saponification reaction took place. The Recommended Use Level and Recommended Applications for commercial soapmaking were also determined for each Natural Wax.